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Experimental Courses 2017-2018, P-Z
PHIL 353X . Buddhist Philosophy. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereqs: PHIL 201 or PHIL 230. Examination of central Buddhist positions and arguments on topics such as personal and social ethics, moral psychology, metaphysics, and the relationship between Buddhist thought and the sciences. Differences between Buddhist and Western approaches to philosophy will be explored.
PHIL 363X. Metaphysics in Science Fiction and Popular Culture. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: PHIL 201. Examination of metaphysical issues that commonly arise in science fiction and related areas of popular culture, including topics such as the relationship between mind and reality, metaphysical personhood, time, and causation.
PHIL 389X. Philosophy of Psychology and Psychiatry. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereqs: 3 credit hours of PHIL courses or 3 credit hours of PSYCH courses. Philosophical foundations of 20th century psychology and psychiatry. Introduction to competing schools of thought in psychology and their philosophical assumptions. Examination of philosophical assumptions in the study of psychopathology/abnormal psychology.
PHYS 050X. Preparation for Introductory Physics. (3-0) Cr. 0. F. Prereq: 1 year high school algebra. An in‐depth active learning experience designed to impart the fundamental concepts and principles of physics, with an emphasis on applied mathematical techniques and logical thinking. For students intending to enroll in classical physics (PHYS 221/222) who have not taken high school physics, who have not had a high school college preparatory physics course, or who need a review of physics problem solving and physics concepts. Credit for Phys 50X does not count toward graduation.
POL S 341X. Canadian Politics and Foreign Policy. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereqs: Pol S 241 or Pol S 251. Governmental structure of Canada, domestic sources of Canadian foreign policy, current Canadian foreign policy issues.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.
POL S 348X. British Government and Politics. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: POL S 215 or POL S 241. Political institutions and processes in Great Britain and Northern Ireland; emphasis on Parliament, executive and monarchy, and public policies, including devolution.
POL S 387X. First Ladies in U.S. History. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. (Cross-listed with HIST 387X and W S 387X). Evolution of the role and office of the First Lady in U.S. history, including her political activism, social impact, and international influence. Analysis of the authority, intersectionality, and agency of First Ladies in the aggregate and exploration of how individual First Ladies have interpreted and adapted this unique public position.
POL S 403X . Legal Research and Writing Skills. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: 9 credits in Political Science; Junior classification. Developing skills for critical thinking, specialized research, and analytical writing essential for the legal profession. Use of an interactive law office simulation package to enhance competency levels for law school and the legal profession. Assignments range from business correspondence and complaints to depositions and pleadings. Offered on-line.
POL S 457X. International Terrorism and Insurgency. (2-1) Cr. 3. S. (Dual-listed with POL S 557X). Prereqs: 6 credits in social science; junior classification. Scientific
explanations for the causes and consequences of non-state political
violence, such as terrorism, insurgencies, political protests, and civil
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.
POL S 508X. Policy Implementation. (3-0) Cr. 3 S. Prereq: Six credits in political science or graduate standing. Examination of the implementation phase of the policy process primarily within the government sector with respect to specific programs, rules, or pieces of legislation within a larger policy area, e.g., health, environment, transportation, education, foreign policy.
POL S 530X. Foundations of Western Political Thought. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. (Cross-listed with CL ST 530X). (Dual-listed with POL S 430 and CL ST 430). Prereqs: 6 credits in political science, philosophy, or European history. Study of original texts in political thought ranging from the classical period to the renaissance. Topics such as justice, freedom, virtue, the allocation of political power, the meaning of democracy, human nature, and natural law.
POL S 553X. International Organizations. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. (Dual-listed with Pol S 453). Prereq: POL S 251. Private and public organizations such as the United Nations, other specialized agencies, and multinational organizations, and their influence on our daily lives.
POL S 557X. International Terrorism and Insurgency. (2-1) Cr. 3. S. (Dual-listed with POL S 457X). Prereqs: 6 credits in social science; junior classification. Scientific explanations for the causes and consequences of non-state political violence, such as terrorism, insurgencies, political protests, and civil war.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.
PORT 375X. Brazil Today. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. A survey of
social, political, economic, and cultural topics relevant to
contemporary Brazil. Includes an introduction to Portuguese language.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.
P R 322X . Strategic Counseling in Public Relations. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereqs: JLMC 110, JLMC 201, PR/ADVRT 301. Aspects of strategic counseling within the public relations industry. Strategic communication expectations, issues and reputation management, budgeting, staff management, message development and media training for executives, speech writing and coaching executives, aligning public relations with marketing, advertising, or digital marketing.
P R 323X. Strategic Communication in Agriculture and the Environment. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. S. (Cross-listed with AGEDS 323X). Prereqs: ENGL 250; Junior classification. Effective communication of agricultural and environmental issues. Analysis of attitudes, advocacy, stakeholder engagement, and impacts on individual and societal choices. Application in the domains of public relations, mass media, and popular culture.
PSYCH 320X. Sleep and Dreams. (2-1) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: PSYCH 101. Scientific study of sleep and dreams including basic biological and psychological aspects of sleep-wake cycles, the nature and function of dreams, and the role of sleep in human behavior, performance, and well-being. Sleep problems and their social consequences.
PSYCH 349X. Psychology of Sexual Orientation. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. (Cross-listed with W S 349X). Prereq: PSYCH 101, 3 additional credits in PSYCH. Development of major human sexual orientation identities (e.g., bisexual, gay, heterosexual, and lesbian) from a research perspective. How persons navigate life contexts (e.g., family, work, relationships) in connection with their sexual identity. Factors that enhance positive sexual orientation identity development.
Meets U.S. Diversity Requirement
PSYCH 589X. Systems Neuroscience: Brain, Behavior, and Nutrition-Related Integrative Physiology. (2-0) Cr. 2. S. (Cross-listed with NEURO 589X, NUTRS 589X, FS HN 589X, GERON 589X). Prereqs: Graduate standing, or undergraduate with consent of instructor. Structural, functional, and biochemical aspects of brain and non-motor behavior across the human lifespan. Types of neuroimaging used to assess the brain. Current research is leveraged to gauge how nutrition, diseases related to nutrition, and associated physiological processes influence the brain, particularly for common developmental, psychological, and neurological disorders.
RELIG 333X. Introduction to Judaism. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. An introduction to basic Judaism. Special attention is given to Jewish sacred texts, rituals, social practices, and modern forms.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.
RELIG 344X. Religions of Latin America and the Caribbean. (3-0) Cr.3. F. Prereqs: RELIG 205 Recommended. Religious
traditions of Latin America and the Caribbean in their diverse
historical and cultural contexts: Indigenous religions, Catholicism,
Protestantism, and African-based religions.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement.
RELIG 368X. Religions of Ancient Greece and Rome. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. (Cross-listed with CL ST 368X). Nature, origins and development of religious beliefs and practices in ancient Greece and Rome from earliest times up to the rise of Christianity. Roles of divinities and rituals in lives of individuals and families and the governing of city-states and empires. Emphasis on historical contexts of the Graeco-Roman world and influences of neighboring cultures in Africa and Asia.
RESEV 603X. Foundations of Qualitative Inquiry in Education. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: C I 601. Focus on the nature of qualitative research, including the ways in which knowledge is produced through qualitative methodologies, the theoretical and epistemological underpinnings of qualitative research, the importance of theoretical and/or conceptual frameworks in qualitative research, and the various methodological approaches to qualitative research.
SCM 434X. Implementing Process Improvement. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. Prereq: SCM 424. Provides hands-on opportunity to practice process improvement drawing on the most frequently used tools from Six Sigma and Lean. Students apply tool in local firms and use them in a final project. Emphasis on the practical application of Six Sigma and Lean techniques.
SCM 471X. Sustainable Supply Chain Management. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: SCM 301. The global nature of a supply chain causes many sustainability issues. This course will consider how supply chain design and execution affect sustainability. Some discussion of governmental policy will be included.
SCM 492X. Supply Chain Management Live Case. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: SCM 301. Students follow supply chain of major firm. Students are expected to complete projects and present findings to senior leadership. Some offerings of the course may involve travel around the United States and an appropriate course fee will be required for those offerings.
SCM 513X. Biorenewables Supply Chain Management. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. (Cross-listed with BRT 513X). Prereqs: Graduate standing or qualified undergraduates with instructor permission. Evaluation of supply chain logistics related the field of biorenewables. The unique challenges associated with biorenewables supply chain are emphasized and examined: cost analysis, market demand & prices, life cycle analysis, environmental impacts, as well as, the technological, social, and political factors related to society.
SCM 540X. Enterprise Supply Chain Information Systems. (3-0) Cr. 3. The role of enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) in the supply chain. Hands-on experience with a major software application in use by many corporations to manage and improve the efficiency of their supply chain. Utilization of an ERP system to help students develop a more process-centric perspective about how a supply chain operates. Students will have the opportunity to use the SAP ERP software package on key processes that most ERP systems utilize (i.e., purchasing, MRP, forecasting, order fulfillment and pricing). Understanding the tactical and operational management of supply chains. Discussion of issues related to the creation of end-user value through supply chain cost reductions, service improvements, or both.
SCM 553X. Supply Chain Planning and Control. (3-0) Cr. 3 F. Supply chain planning and control is the process which synchronizes demand with manufacturing and distribution. Sales and operations planning with emphasis on forecasting, master scheduling, materials requirements planning, inventory management and demand planning. Linking business plans and information systems for integration and distribution channels are also covered. Emphasis on the strategic advantages of linking business plans and demand forecasts.
SCM 609X. Special Topics in SCM. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereqs: SCM 601 or permission of instructor. Review of current issues in SCM. Provides opportunities to read and discuss research articles that made important contributions in SCM literature.
S E 421X. Software Analysis and Verification for Safety and Security. (3-0) Cr. 3. F.S. Prereqs: S E 309; CPR E 310 or Com S 230. Significance of software safety and security; various facets of security in cyber-physical and computer systems; threat modeling for software safety and security; and categorization of software vulnerabilities. Software analysis and verification: mathematical foundations, data structures and algorithms, program comprehension, analysis, and verification tools; automated vs. human-on-the-loop approach to analysis and verification; and practical considerations of efficiency, accuracy, robustness, and scalability of analysis and verification. Cases studies with application and systems software; evolving landscape of software security threats and mitigation techniques. Understanding large software, implementing software analysis and verification algorithms
STAT 202X . Career Development in Math and Statistics. Cr. 1. S. (Cross-listed with MATH 202X). Career development in the mathematics and statistics disciplines with an emphasis on contemporary social issues. Presentations by professionals in STEM fields about occupations, decision-making strategies, and career goal implementation; development of job searching, resume writing, negotiating, and interviewing techniques. Offered satisfactory-fail only.
STAT 526X. Applied Statistical Modeling. (3-0 approx., online only) Cr. 3. F. Prereq:Admission to Master of Business Analytics program. Probability concepts and distributions used in statistical decision-making for business applications. Least-squares and maximum likelihood estimation, sampling distributions of estimators, formal statistical inference, analysis of variance, multiple regression models and strategies for model selection, logistic regression, and Poisson regression. Applications implemented with the R statistical package. Simulations used to investigate properties of inferential procedures and to assist in data analysis.
STAT 528X. Visual Business Analytics. (3-0 approx., online only) Cr. 3. F. Prereqs: Admission to the Master of Business Analytics Program. Types of data displays; numerical and visual summaries of data; data structures for data displays; data vs info graphics; good practices of displaying data; human perception and cognition in data displays; graphics as tools of data exploration; graphical diagnostics of statistical models and machine learning procedures; strategies and techniques for data visualizations; basics of reproducibility and repeatability; web-based interactive applets for visual presentation of data and results; programming in R. May not be used for graduate credit in the Statistics program.
STB 596X. Innovation Management in the Seed Biotechnology Industry. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereqs: Admission to Seed Technology and Business Graduate Program or consent of Instructor. Biotechnology implementation in crop variety development, testing, and production; organizational structure and Total Quality Management principles applied to seed production and research laboratories; policies, laws, regulations, and Intellectual Property Rights impacting seed biotechnology Research & Development (R&D); relationships between R&D and other parts of biotechnology companies.
SUS E 513X. Sustainable Environments Colloquium III. Cr. 3. Prereqs: SUS E 502, SUS E 540. Research expands and integrates findings from the Sustainable Environments design exploration pursued in SUS E 540 and SUS E 502. Students develop an independently-defined research to produce a comprehensive and conclusive written document.
SUS E 550X. Making Resilient Environments. (1-1-1) Cr. 3. F. (Cross-listed with C R P 550X). Major theories and ideas revolving around the concept of resilience. Assessing the social and political processes associated with policy making for resilience. Application of the concept of resilience in order to understand and evaluate environments. Evaluate the different approaches toward resilience and develop an understanding of the relationship between sustainability and resilience. Case studies of communities that proactively prepare for, absorb, recover from, and adapt to actual or potential future adverse events.
TSM 457X. Feed Safety, Ingredient Quality and Analytics. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. (Dual-listed with TSM 557X). Prereq: Junior classification. C oncepts of feed and grain safety and quality, including hazards and risks associated with common feeds and feed ingredients. Methods to monitor, manage, and mitigate hazards and risks in the context of feed and grain industries. Government regulations applicable to feed and grain safety. Differences between safety and quality factors, how they are measured and then used for decision-making (marketing, processing, or safe-use).
TSM 557X. Feed Safety, Ingredient Quality and Analytics. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. (Dual-listed with TSM 457X). C oncepts of feed and grain safety and quality, including hazards and risks associated with common feeds and feed ingredients. Methods to monitor, manage, and mitigate hazards and risks in the context of feed and grain industries. Government regulations applicable to feed and grain safety. Differences between safety and quality factors, how they are measured and then used for decision-making (marketing, processing, or safe-use).
U ST 275X. Integrative Undergraduate Pre-Research. (1-0) Cr. 1. F. Skills for undergraduate students to prepare them for future research experiences. Students will learn about the benefits from being engaged in research, strategies for identifying research mentors, and skills to identify and apply for national research opportunities. Students will become familiar with core facets of research including hypothesis development, method selection, data collection, visualization, and analysis. Students will learn about the ethical issues facing research, local and national research regulatory agencies, and how to responsibly conduct research. Students will learn about tools to enhance their networking capabilities, identify potential careers research skills, and opportunities to advance their professional development.
U ST 303X. CALM Life Skills Seminar. (1-0) Cr. 1. F. Prereq: Senior classification. CALM After the Storm is a course designed to help student-athletes successfully transition to life after Iowa State University. The CALM programming will include Career preparation, Adulthood, Life after athletics, and Money management.
U ST 316X. Leadership in Peer Education. Cr. 2. S. This course will provide emerging student leaders preparing to be peer educators or peer mentors with an understanding of peer education. Students will be introduced to foundational theories of peer education and behavior change, connect their learning to previous experiences, and apply their learning to practice various peer education skills. Students will be expected to learn and practice essential peer education skills including effective listening, responding and referral, small group facilitation & dialogue, and developing inclusive environments.
URB D 512X. Urban Design Colloquium. (0-1) Cr. R. F. Prereq: Admission to Urban Design Program. Special topics and guest speakers.
URB D 513X. Urbanism Research. (3-0) Cr. 3. SS. Prereq: Graduate standing or with instructor permsission. Research expands and integrates discourse and design findings from various Urban Design degree courses. Develop independently-defined research to produce a comprehensive and conclusive final document that incorporates text, visuals and/or other media.
V C S 403X. Clinical Cardiology II. (.5-.5) Cr. 1. S. Prereq: V C S 444. Elective course in clinical cardiology. Emphasis on common congenital and acquired cardiac diseases of companion animals. Builds on foundation of basic clinical cardiac knowledge obtained in V C S 444; expands to cover additional diseases in greater depth (e.g. infective endocarditis, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, heartworm disease, feline arterial thromboembolism, bradyarrhythmias and cardiac pacing, congenital heart diseases and interventional correction). Satisfactory-fail only.
V C S 404X. Topics in Emergency and Critical Care. (2-0) Cr. 2. F. Prereq: Third year veterinary medicine program. Provide an introduction of common topics in emergency and critical care in companion animals. General learning goals for students in this course include developing the ability to utilize physical exam skills and historical findings to triage patients and assess stability.
V C S 482X. Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery Rotation. Cr. 2. F. S. SS. Prereq: Enrollment in 4th year of the veterinary curriculum; completion of primary care rotation or familiar with the Primary Care protocol; proof of rabies prophylaxis and a protective titer. Basic principles of veterinary dentistry and oral surgery. Participation in dental cleaning and scaling of the teeth in the oral cavity; positioning and interpretation of dental radiographs; administration of regional anesthesia; and patient care and animal handling, including instructions of dental procedures and dental home care. Opportunities may be available to practice oral surgery, extraction techniques and radiographic positioning on cadaver specimens. Interaction with clients during procedures and appointments. Opportunities to observe and assist with advanced dentistry and oral surgery procedures as the need arises. Experience in primary care rotation responsibilities.
VDPAM 420P. Applied Poultry Production Medicine Preceptorship. Cr. 1-6. SS. Prereqs: Fourth year classification in veterinary medicine required. VDPAM 408 and/or VDPAM 498 strongly recommended. Unique, highly relevant, hands-on veterinary experience for participating students. Development of poultry-specific practice skill sets. Documented experience that is highly valued by future poultry employers. Enhanced cultural and professional awareness for participating students through interaction with active poultry practitioners. Exposure to diverse poultry practice and production environments. Graduation restrictions: Up to 6 credits to count for graduation.
VDPAM 424X. Preceptorship in Diagnostic Pathology. Cr. 1-6. F. Prereq: VDPAM 455. Advanced course in production animal medicine with emphasis on gross and diagnostic pathology. Forty hours clinical experience per week. Assignments will be preceptorships with a diagnostic laboratory, veterinary pathologist, governmental agency and/or production unit. Biosecurity policies require documentation of student's presence in the USA 5 days immediately prior to the start of class.
VDPAM 463X. Feedlot Production Medicine. Cr. 1. S. Prereq: VDPAM 310: concurrent enrollment in VDPAM 421D. One-week VM4 elective focusing on Midwestern feedlot production. Addresses feedlot production practices common to Iowa and surrounding states, including feeding cattle on concrete or under roofs. Activities include participation and visitation to representative feedlots in Iowa.
VDPAM 478A. Swine Medicine Education Center: Swine Production Management and Consultation. Cr. 2. S. Prereq: VDPAM 310. Swine production management and consulting skills within a progressive swine production and management system. Time will be split approximately with half in-class discussion topics of finance and business of the swine industry and half on-farm learning opportunities where students will visit a breeding farm, nursery facility, finishing facility, wean-to-finish facility, gilt developer unit, and a truck wash facility.
VDPAM 478B. Swine Medicine Education Center: Swine Clinical Pharmacology and Treatment Management. Cr. 2. S. Prereq: VDPAM 310. Basic and applied information on swine treatment options, strategies to maximize efficacy, and skills to pursue judicious use of antimicrobials, reproductive interventions, and the entire spectrum of drug therapies. The course emphasizes case based application and decisions and is approximately 30% web-based and 70% on-site including farms of a variety of structures and functions. During the course, students prepare a thorough evaluation of the pharmacologic interventions that may occur on farms and then implement this evaluation in active production facilities to maximize efficacy, compliance and animal welfare as part of a comprehensive judicious use objective.
VDPAM 478C. Swine Medicine Education Center: Swine Emerging Diseases Diagnosis and Management. Cr. 2. S. Prereq: VDPAM 310. Diagnostic tests, methods, approaches, analysis, and evaluation of emerging swine diseases and provide general knowledge of disease elimination and methods to manage herd losses and economic losses due to disease. Two-week, on-site module that combines structured site visits and classroom activities.
VDPAM 498X. Poultry Medicine. Cr.2. SS. Prereq: VM4 students or by permission of instructor. Two-week senior elective to introduce students into poultry production medicine in the Midwest. Students will participate in routine flock monitoring, biosecurity reviews, disease investigations involving outbreaks in commercial and backyard poultry operations, and have a basic understanding of the poultry industry and poultry diseases. Involves didactic lectures in the classroom, field trips to poultry farms, and necropsies. This course requires students to do out-of-state travel and overnight stays.
V MPM 360X. Global Health. (3-0) Cr. 3. (Cross-listed with MICRO 360X and GLOBE 360X). Prereqs: Biol 211, and either Micro 201 or Micro 302. Global
Health explores health and its determinants across the world with a
commitment to the many disciplines and variables that influence health.
The course will stress the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and
the environment, with emphasis on poor countries. The course is designed
to challenge the typical understanding of what impacts health and to
stimulate the student to take an entrepreneurial approach to finding
solutions. Current events will be a major focus of the class. Within the
context of health and disease, topics will include poverty, infectious
diseases, gender, social media, climate change, animal health,
agriculture, and more. Each student will complete one case study on a
topic related to global health. Outside reading and films will be
required for each class meeting. There will be four exams. Students will
also be expected to sign up for Twitter and use Black Board.
Meets International Perspectives Requirement
V MPM 503X. Safety in the Biological Laboratory. (2-0) Cr. 1. F. Laboratory safety with emphasis on hazardous biological and physical agents and materials, their safe handling and disposition, and the local and federal rules and regulations pertaining to their use.
V MPM 517X. Gut Microbiome: Implications for Health and Diseases. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. (Cross-listed with AN S 517X, FS HN 517X, and MICRO 517X). Prereq: Basic Knowledge in microbiology. Explore current research on gut microbiome including modern tools used to study the gut microbiome. Examine the linkages between gut microbiome and health status, diseases, and manipulation of gut microbiome to improve health.
V PTH 403X. Introduction to Pathology II. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereq: VPTH/BIOL 402. Continuation of pathology topics begun in VPTH 402. This consists of how specific organ systems respond to injury using principles and information covered in VPTH 402. Also included will be study of a set of prototypical diseases that affect humans and animals.
WESEP 512X. Wind Energy System Deployment. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Prereqs: WESEP 501 and WESEP 502. Advances in manufacturing, construction, reliability, supply chain, economics and policy for wind energy. Topics include sensor optimization, reliability analysis, advanced automation, fabric layup, transportation infrastructure planning, markets and public policy, and risk attitudes and perceptions.
WLC 107X. Introduction to Swahili. (1-0) Cr. 1. S. Basics of grammar and vocabulary within the context of the cultures where Swahili is spoken. For students whose native language is not Swahili. Taught in Swahili. Offered on-line.
W S 210X. Gender and Sexuality in American Pop Culture. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Analysis of the many codes that are conveyed thought popular culture texts, particularly regarding gender and sexuality. Influences on the developments of our identities that shape how we view the world. Intersectional topics include discussion of race and class.
W S 349X. Psychology of Sexual Orientation. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. (Cross-listed with PSYCH 349X). Prereq: PSYCH 101, 3 additional credits in PSYCH. Development of major human sexual orientation identities (e.g., bisexual, gay, heterosexual, and lesbian) from a research perspective. How persons navigate life contexts (e.g., family, work, relationships) in connection with their sexual identity. Factors that enhance positive sexual orientation identity development.
Meets U.S. Diversity Requirement
W S 387X. First Ladies in U.S. History. (3-0) Cr. 3. F. (Cross-listed with HIST 387X and POL S 387X). Evolution of the role and office of the First Lady in U.S. history, including her political activism, social impact, and international influence. Analysis of the authority, intersectionality, and agency of First Ladies in the aggregate and exploration of how individual First Ladies have interpreted and adapted this unique public position.
YTH 589X. Grant Development and Management. (3-0) Cr. 3. S. Grant-getting process and an overview of what happens after a project is funded. The following topics will be covered: researching funding sources, generating cutting edge ideas, assessing needs, planning a project, establishing credibility, formulating a sustainable budget, designing an evaluation plan, managing the funded project, and disseminating project results.